I.C.Ts is essential on the planet basically and growing international locations to be particular. I.C.Ts have created important impression in lots of areas in terms of nationwide growth. After we check out the financial system of the nation, schooling, faith, Social Science and Know-how we will see that I.C.Ts have contributed quite a bit in enhancing these areas. You would possibly are likely to surprise how however as you learn alongside you’ll perceive and see the significance of I.C.Ts in growing international locations (Johnson, 2008).
I.C.Ts confer with applied sciences that present entry to data via telecommunications. It’s just like data expertise (I.T), however focuses totally on communication applied sciences. This consists of the web, wi-fi networks, cell telephones, and different communication mediums (Marke, 2003).
I.C.Ts are involved primarily with data administration that’s, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical data by a microelectronics based mostly communication of pc and telecommunication as its foremost fields (Julliet, 2001).
The Function of ICTs in Organisations
If any group just like the Prison Investigation Division (CID) in Sierra Leone is to develop and develop then there should be efficient and environment friendly communication within the organisation. Info whether or not it’s pictorial, textual, written or vocal kind via which an data is communication from prime to backside or the reviser for the efficient operating of the group using I. C. T. is essential as a result of it makes it very simple via using cellphone, computer systems and different gadgets that we use to speak data is because of the truth that we’ve got what we name I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).
• By means of I. C.Ts. expertise consumer can have quick access to data via an e-mail via by this it save the time of the workers simply via by visiting his/her e-mail tackle he/she is going to know in regards to the newest growth in Prison Investigation Division, with out going to his/her or boss for data;
• I. C. Ts. have performed very very important function in social media actions and using web through the years and it’s nonetheless making constructive impression in our society immediately. With out I.C.Ts;
• I.C.Ts. have made it potential for an individual in a single nation to order items from one other nation, electronically from a second and pay for it electronically in a 3rd.
I. C.Ts. Have modified the world industrial revolution types from the mine tenth century and this modification is everlasting, as a result of it creates new financial actions, new relations of manufacturing, new political forces, new job, and new outlook of life;
• I.C.Ts. have performs nice function within the well being sector of Prison Investigation
Division by enhancing on healthcare consciousness supply and public consciousness on essential well being challenge. By means of I. C. Ts. one can will be capable of have entry to medical data and skilled specialists can scale back struggling and saves lives (Peter, 2005).
Historic background of the (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone
The Sierra Leone Police Drive is the brainchild of the British authorities. Its inception dates way back to to 1808 when Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. Within the absence of a proper organized physique to maintain the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates have been appointed by Magistrates to return to Sierra Leone to take care of legislation and order. Between 1863-1888 the then Police Drive had metamorphosed with a purpose to tackle the ugly incidents, which have been rearing their heads particularly throughout the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances led to the event of police alongside the frontier. In 1889, subsequently, the police was divided- army and frontier duties have been taken over by the Frontier Police white Civilian duties have been left with the Frontier Police subsequently turned referred to as the Court docket Messenger Drive, and have been made chargeable for the colony.
On the 27th October 1894, within the Royal Gazette of that date, the civil police within the colony got the designation “The Sierra Leone Police Drive” – (S. L.P.F) which has remained unchanged to today. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the Military to regulate the police power, with the rank of superintendent and Mr. Brooks, a metropolitan police officer, was appointed inspector of police. In 1909 superintendent Brooks was appointed the primary commissioner of police.
No actual important strides befell within the power, till, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Superintendent of Police from Nigerian, took over command of the power as Commissioner of Police kind Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The energy of the power was 300, together with two (2) expatriates, the Commissioner and the Assistant Commissioner and Africans stuffed the remainder the opposite ranks. The intense civil disturbances led to the fast introduction of the Riot Squad which was subsequently skilled to include additional riots. Mr. Ward raised the energy to 600 and this created a welcome and overdue improve in promotion possibilities. For the primary time Africans have been promoted to the rank of Assistant superintendent of Police (A. S. P) and a fleet of autos comprising automobiles, lorries, motor cycle and bicycles was later obtained.
He began the correct coaching college at Port Loko in 1944, which was later transferred to the naval camp at hasting the place it stands to today. He additionally began native communications between police departments and finally substitute this by a police wi-fi communication system which immediately cowl the entire nation. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who raised the energy to 1,000, despatched the primary African sub-inspector to coach a Henden which continued thenceforth. He launched the primary correct FORCE STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the police FEDERATION and POLICE COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took over and wasted no time in taking policing to the provinces which resulted in its enlargement. He affiliated the police power to Worldwide Police Group (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a system by which each police officer was taught not duties it doesn’t matter what part of the power he could also be hooked up to.
Between 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh turned the primary Sierra Leonean Commissioner of Police and below his management a police Act was established in 1964 which was meant to consolidate and amend the legal guidelines referring to the Sierra Leone police power that’s, the safety of life and property, the prevention and detection of crime and the apprehension of offenders between 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith turned the second Sierra Leone commissioner of police who led the power via Republic in 1971.
The uniform right now consisted of gray shorts and gray jacket with black footwear and cummerbund. Part 174 of the Sierra Leone Structure of 1978 modified the normal function of the power by the appointment of the ten Commissioners of Police, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as one of many seven (7) appointed members of parliament by the Government president, thus politicizing the function of the police power.
Between 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson turns into the primary inspector – Basic of police. On the first of January, 1987, the power was re- divisionalized into police divisions every division being represented by letters, starting from “A” to “N” and every division commanded by a chief police officer [C. P. O]. These have been additional sub-divided into police Districts and positioned below the command of the officer commanding districts [o/c] who could also be a Deputy Superintendent of police or Assistant Superintendent of Police (A.S.P.).
In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, in a bid to redeem the great picture of the Sierra Leone Police Drive which had critically dented by politics, the British Authorities despatched Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Superintendent of Police to restructure the power. A collection of police programs have been then launched into the curriculum with a purpose to improve the power in policing a contemporary democratic society coaching programs just like the Junior and Senior Administration Programs Trainers course, prison investigation Division course referred to as the Yorkshire Course was launched which went an extended approach to restructure the police.
The democratically elected Authorities of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the companies of the British Authorities to assist additional restructure the Sierra Leone Police Drive. The British Authorities responded by sending a crew referred to as the Commonwealth Police Growth Process Drive. which was headed by the Inspector-Basic of police, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Beneath the dynamic management of the British born Inspector- Basic of police, the Sierra Leone police power is regularly regained the boldness of the general public via the change administration below the brand new restructured program, in order that the power can turn out to be “Drive For Good’ which is its recognized for immediately. (Sierra Leone Police Prospectus 2014).
Actions of Prison Investigation Division (CID)
The next are the actions untaken by CID of the Sierra Leone Police:
Crimes scene investigators are charged with the accountability of formally documenting the crime scene. This documentation is normally everlasting and constitutes the official document of the investigation. It may be forwarded to officers and legislation enforcement businesses for additional use and investigation. Documentation consists of photograph, diagrams and sketches, and written notes. At this level, the crimes scene investigation normally make some form of preliminary interpretation of the proof at hand and doc the actions taken by the investigators on the actions taken by the investigators on the scene Efficient documentation permits for an correct re-party, comparable to a forensics crew.
The investigator should perform a lot of authorized duties in relation to earlier work. Based mostly on their investigation, crime scene investigators assist legal professionals and different authorized officers put together prison proceedings. They usually meet to clarify their official reviews and the proof, ensuring it is understood. Investigators are also referred to as on to testify in court docket, the place they’re the foremost authority on what was discovered on the scene and what conclusions have been drawn.
They need to be capable of clarify what the proof means and why sure conclusions appear compelling based mostly on investigation. Crime scene investigators should even be acquainted with Nationwide and state legal guidelines and with related case legislation to place the proof in perspective.
As soon as the scene has been secured, surveyed and documented, the crime scene investigator leads an effort to gather related proof. This course of may be gradual and requires quite a lot of persistence, in addition to the power to successfully talk and collaborate with others. A capability to correctly and delicately deploy gear is paramount right here. Proof, comparable to articles of clothes hair, nail clippings and fiber samples, should be collected in such a fashion that its integrity is preserved. Labeled and sealed pouches preserve the integrity of the proof in addition to the chain of custody. The investigator is also chargeable for sustaining the integrity of the crime scene by roping off the world, protecting witnesses from tampering with proof and making spots the place proof was collected.
The preliminary search, additionally referred to as scene recognition, is the primary walkthrough that or crime scene investigator takes. Upon the primary examination, the crime scene investigator develops a technique to method the scene and apprehend proof. This could embody elements comparable to what directing to go in, prioritizing proof which may disappear or be harmed; and figuring out what gear and sources are essential to successfully take inventory of the scenario. The crime scene investigator can assemble and lead the crew to analyze the scene and acquire proof. Homicide scenes, for instance, might require investigators to gather blood and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A theft might require fingerprints, from factors of entry and different surfaces the burglar might have touched.
Examples of ICTs utilized by the C I D
In trendy occasions, policing has been carried out with using technological objects to allow them carryout their actions with the convenience and for efficient and environment friendly service supply. ICTs. confer with applied sciences that present entry to data, via telecommunication which is analogous to data expertise (I T), however right here focus is totally on communication applied sciences. This consists of the web, wi-fi networks, cell telephones and different communication media The next data communication applied sciences are utilized by the CID of the Sierra Leone police
• Closed-Circuit tv (CCTV): to observe occasions/ happenings inside their areas of obligations and for use as pictorial/ visible proof in court docket and for data functions.
• Digital Cameras: these are used to take snap photographs of allow efficient and environment friendly investigations with actual proof to be tendered in court docket as proof.
• Drivers: these are used to avoid wasting/hold helpful details about an investigation comparable to progress reviews, summary reviews, abstract of proof, and proceedings/rulings a few matter.
• Photograph Copiers: they’re primarily used to duplicate reviews and different paperwork to be distributed to numerous authorities involved for his or her private directives and obligatory motion.
• Scanners: these are most typical now because of terrorist threats and can be utilized for people, automobiles and for bags’s with a purpose to detect / forestall crime and the concern of crime and to revive confidence within the populace. It may be used to detect any offensive objects/ weapons and to forestall any mishap.
• Computer systems: at the moment are generally used to analyze prison worldwide. With the assistance of computer systems, the Interpol can observe criminals from each continent and the assorted police headquarters can liaise with one another to get the specified end result. Additionally, may computing has been a lot influential investigations with a purpose to find the the place about of criminals and to trace their acts/actions and accomplices.
Issues related to using ICTs and data supply of the CID within the Sierra Leone Police.
• Energy Challenges: Lack of constant and reasonably priced electrical energy is the best problem in designing a computing infrastructure for prison data (or another software that matter). The overwhelming majority of prison investigation amenities within the prison investigation division don’t have any foremost energy and, the place out there, such energy is normally extraordinarily unreliable or so unstable that it poses a menace to unprotected digital gear.
• Environmental Challenges: The bodily surroundings in Sierra Leone and in most different areas within the nation is characterised by some mixture of warmth, mud and humidity, every of which is an issue for traditional computer systems. Excessive velocity Central Processing Models generate monumental quantities of warmth that, if not correctly dissipated, reduces efficiency or can render these programs in operable. Mud threatens delicate electronics by shorting circuits and impeding airflow and warmth dissipation. Humidity results in condensation corrosion and even mildew, all of which might trigger electrical issues and probably shorten gear lifespan.
• Connectivity Challenges: Lack of reasonably priced connectivity and bandwidth within the major impediment to a number of of essentially the most promising prison investigation purposes within the CID, together with coaching initiatives and different real- time help Lack of connectivity additionally complicates extra primary efforts to gather and analyse prison data.
It’s more and more clear that data is the life blood of the CID system. Correct, well timed and accessible crime data strengthens actually each a part of the system, from coverage making, to logistic and coaching. In distinction, inefficient crime data programs endure from an data anemia that weakens the system.
Sadly, all too many crime programs within the growing world nonetheless endure from the equal data shock, a system threaten situation characterised by the lack to generate entry or act on even essentially the most important crime data. Success or failure of ICTs deployment in Prison Investigation Division will depend on entry to reasonably priced, built-in options which are each sustainable in low useful resource setting and adaptable to native situation invented is actively growing and deploying such system specifically to handle this want. It’s subsequently fairly obligatory to notice that ICTs play a important and essential function in enhancing the profitable provision, administration and supply of knowledge in combating crimes.